Case Against the North


  • Forward to the Online Edition
  • Preface
  • Sketch of Author
  • 1. False Definitions & Doctrines
  • 2. Objects of Union
  • 3. Founding Documents
  • 4. "One People"
  • 5. New England Shipping
  • 6. Navigation Laws
  • 7. Fishing Bounties
  • 8. Revolutionary War Debt
  • 9. The US Bank
  • 10. Revoluntionary Pensioners
  • 11. Public Lands
  • 12. War of 1812
  • 13. Taxes and Tariffs
  • 14. Tariff Debates
  • 15. Tariff Drawbacks and Frauds
  • 16. Slavery
  • 17. Morality and Sectionalism
  • 18. "The Slave Power"
  • 19. Mr. Benton's Views
  • 20. Causes of Subjugation
  • 21. Abolition Not a War Cause
  • Comments

By enlarged intellectual culture, especially by philosophic studies, men come at last to pursue truth for its own stake, to esteem it a duty to emancipate themselves from party spirit, prejudices, and passion, and through love of truth to cultivate a judicial spirit in controversy. They aspire to the intellect not of a sectarian but of a philosopher, to the intellect not of a partisan but of a stateseman."



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The Case of the South Against the North

Historical Evidence Justifying the Southern States of the American Union in their Long Controversy with the Northern States

Benjamin Franklin Grady,
A Representatative in the Fifty-Second and Fifty-Third Congresses of the United States






False definitions the foundation of false doctrines. - These false doctrines produced deplorable consequences. - State, sovereign, citizen, and nation the most important of the words incorrectly defined. - State. - How the "fathers"used the word. - When did it lose its proper meaning? - Sovereign. - Sovereignty and allegiance were correlative terms, and allegiance was due to the State. - John Hancock on the sovereignty of Massachusetts. - Citizen. - The new meaning attempted to be given to the word in late years. - Nation. - What Mr. Jefferson advised. - This word and its derivatives deliberately excluded from the Constitution. - Applied to the peoples of these States to dis­tinguish them from "foreign nations''. - Any department of the Federal government can be chosen by a minority of the voters of the Union, and the only majority required anywhere is the majority of States in the Senate. - The correct definition of the word was never disputed till it became necessary to jus­tify aggressions on the rights of certain States. - There are 23 States in the Union containing 18 per cent. of the total popula­tion; but their 46 Senators can control legislation, the appoint­ments of judges, foreign ministers, etc., and the ratifications of treaties.


The union of the States, the objects and conditions. - The solution of the problem must be sought in the actions of the Colonies and the States, and not in the opinions and purposes of individuals. - It is hazardous to cite opinions of individuals; al­most every statesman can be cited on both sides of questions of the highest importance. - The provisions of the Constitution and the limitations of the powers of the Congress were ex­plained by the wisest statesmen; and the States were not be­guiled into ratifying it. - Certain amendments added on the demand of several States. - Significance of the word " be­tween ". - Mr. Greeley on the deception of the people. - The draft submitted to the States was to be a Constitution as soon as nine States ratified it. - Formidable opposition in some States. - The action of Massachusetts and the proceedings in Pennsylvania. - By June 26, 1788. all the States had ratified except North Carolina and Rhode Island, both of which stood aloof nearly two years. - North Carolina's objections. - Erroneous constructions of terms, phrases, and provisions due to the secrecy of the proceedings of the Convention which framed the Constitution. - "We, the people." - Mr. Greeley did not read far enough in Elliot's Debates. - To understand clearly the relations of the States in the new Union requires a knowledge of their previous relations. - Unions of the Colonies for mutual defense before the middle of the 18th century. - Opposition to the revenue laws of the mother country.  - The passage of the Stamp Act was followed, at the urgent request of Massachu­setts, by a Congress of nine Colonies, which issued an address denying that the Colonies could he taxed without their con­sent.  - Some of the Southern States taxed 16 years without their consent. - Other tax measures. - Conciliatory legislation. - East India Company's tea too cheap for the New England smugglers. - "Boston tea party." - Parliament passes the "Bos­ton Port Bill" and other repressive measures. - Boston asks the other Colonies to join in non-importation measures, and in a general Congress. - Sympathy for the sufferings of the Bostonians. - Virginia urges the other Colonies to unite in the pro­posed Congress. - The action of North Carolina. - Provisions and money sent to the Bostonians. - "The cause of Boston the cause of all." - Twelve Colonies meet in a Congress. - It advises the holding of another Congress the next year. - Folly of the Par­liament in passing other measures to punish the New Englanders. - The proposed Congress meets in May, 1775. - Georgia and Canada.  - Powers of the delegates.  - Reconciliation with Great Britain kept steadily in view. - What Messrs. Hooper, Hewes. and Caswell said. - Battle of Lexington, and the capture of Ticonderoga, Crown Point. and White Hall by New England­ers. - "The Rubicon" crossed. - The other Colonies stand by Massachusetts. - The rights of British subjects demanded by them through their delegates in the Congress. - An army raised. - A Southerner appointed commander-in-chief. - A stroke of policy. - Reconciliation still in view. - Loyalty of Massachusetts.  - Declaration of Independence. - Formal Union proposed. - Articles of Confederation. They become the first Constitution March 1. 1781. - Why amendments and additions were incorporated in a new Constitution seven years afterwards.

NOTE A. - British taxation - How it affected the loyalty of the Colonists

NOTE B. - Unreliability of our historians. - "Taxation without representation " no new thing in the colonies.

NOTE C. - Why Georgia lagged, and why Canada refused to join in measures of opposition to Great Britain.


The Declaration of Independence. - It refers to no government in North America except that of each of the Colonies, and it war­rants no inference that its authors contemplated any other. - Comparison of the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. - The Legislature two houses instead of one. - The equality of the States preserved in the Senate. - The two modes of sup­plying the Federal treasury. - The President. - His oath. - The mutual covenants of the States. - The oath of State officials. - What it means. - Pension acts framed by pensioners. - Powers delegated by the States. - The Constitution, not "the Govern­ment," to be supreme. - The only important additions in the Constitution to the powers of the Congress were " to regulate commerce," and " to lay and collect taxes.'' etc. - The power to "emit bills of credit" stricken out of the final draft by the votes of nine States against two. - General Davie on the power "to regulate the times, places, and manner." - Powers of the Congress limited. - Habeas corpus and ex post facto laws. - Maj. Henry Wirtz's fate. - "Sovereign powers" delegated in the Articles as well as the Constitution. - This truth hidden by John Fiske and other Northern writers. - Madison on sovereignty. - The powers reserved by each State. - Treason against a State recognized in the Constitution. - The first ten amend­ment's restrictions of the powers of the Federal government.

NOTE D. - Acts of doubtful Constitutionality passed by the first

NOTE E. - Restrictions on the Federal government held by high
authority to be restrictions on the States or the people


Vicious doctrines. - The true principles of the Government de­nied in order to justify usurpations. - Daniel Webster and Joseph Story. - "One people." - Their arguments. - What Jef­ferson said about the proceedings of the Congress in the sum­mer of 1776. - What James Wilson said in an address to the people of Pennsylvania. - North Carolina first to instruct for independence. - Why the States were not named in the Decla­ration of Independence and in the Constitution. - Allegiance to the State. - Each State retained its freedom, sovereignty, and independence. - It could not retain what did not belong to it. - Webster answers Webster. - Bancroft's non sequitur. - " Be­tween," and not "over." - Absurd definition of "state" in Webster's Dictionary

NOTE F. - What the "stars and stripes" signify


New England's shipping interests. - Leyden and its influence on the people who came over in the Mayflower. - Commerce and the fisheries, and the African slave trade. - In 1727 the "pauper labor" ship-carpenters in England driven out of the business by the New England builders. - Restrictions on the commercial and fishing interests of New England the incentive to inde-pendence. - Wealth flowed into those States after the war. - Algernon Sidney. - Not satisfied with natural conditions, they applied for monopolistic privileges. - The Southern States vainly opposed their demands. - Phenomenal growth of the shipping interests under paternalistic care. - The interests of the South­ern States. - Agriculture did not ask to be quartered on the people's treasury or on other occupations. - How the South was reduced to a state of vassalage to the favored classes of the North

NOTE G. - Comparative wealth of the Colonies   


Navigation laws. - The so-called compromise by which navigation acts can be passed by the affirmative votes of one-fourth plus one of the total membership of each House. - What Maclay said. - Greeley's boomerang. - Discriminating tonnage duties. - ­Tonnage of a vessel. - Discriminating "light money" tax. - Another restriction on foreign vessels. - The coasting trade monopoly. - Discriminating taxes laid on goods imported in foreign ships. - No drawback allowed for discriminating tax if such goods reexported. - "Home market" for ship-builders. - "Outrageous prices" for ships. - What Carey said about the re­sulting impoverishment of the South. - John Lowell's estimate of the gains of the shippers. - A circumstance which indicates the extent of the operations of New England's commercial and slave-trading operations. - The magical effect of the different acts. - In 1810 foreign ships controlled only 9 per cent of the foreign commerce of these States. - After mad protection be­gan to allure capital into manufacturing, our foreign commerce began to fall slowly into the hands of foreigners. - The still madder post-bellum protection gave foreigners 81 per cent. of it. - New favors to shippers. - Ship materials exempt from taxes. - Bounties for carrying the mails. - The remedies appar­ently ineffective. - Why some Southern representatives yielded to the demands of New England. - Why Southern agriculturists did not engage in ship-building.

NOTE H. - Evils of quorum legislation.


The first tariff acts allowed a drawback of duties paid on for­eign salt to exporters of salt fish and provisions. - The petition of the Legislature of Massachusetts. - What Jefferson said. - What John Jay said. - Drawback changed to allowance per bar­rel, quintal, etc. - Salt tax and allowance repealed in 1807. - In 1813 salt tax revived, and tonnage bounties allowed to fisher­men, but provisions left out. - A judicial decision. - Bounty granted if vessel wrecked. - Eating out the substance of the people. - What Mr. Benton said. - What President Jackson said about frauds. - William B. Giles and Hugh Williamson on bounties. - Greed deaf to the appeals for justice. - International disputes about the fisheries, and the burdens laid by them on the people. -  Damages awarded tq Great Britain. - They may involve us in future troubles.


Revolutionary war debts. - Hamilton advised the assumption of the State debts. - Marshall's report of the proceedings. - The continental debt provided for. - State debts rejected by the votes of North Carolina's representatives. - Maclay's account of the proceedings. - Members of Congress speculating in certificates. - A "bargain" hinted at. - What Hawkins, of North Carolina, said about the speculators. - Wadsworth. a member of Congress from Connecticut. - Madison's proposition. and how the speculators received it. - Robbing the people for the benefit of bondholders demanded then as now by " public faith", "public credit", and "honor". - They didn't want any land. - Robert Morris. - Bribery in the air. - The demeanor of the speculators after their failure to burden the people with eight dollars for every dollar invested in certificates. - Then the "bargain", as reported by Marshall. - What Hildreth says about the "bargain". - The South got the permanent seat of the Federal capital. and the Northern speculators got what Greeley calls the "thrift ". - How much the people paid to the traders during the first three administrations. - Why President Washington approved such a "bargain". - Why Jefferson was silent, or acquiescent. - His complaint in his Ana. - "No as­sumption, no Union". - How Southern people felt  - What cor­rupt schemers learned. - "The direful spring of woes unnumbered".



Another method of strengthening the public credit. - Robert Morris's Bank of North America. - It became the Bank of the United States. - No Constitutional authority. - Hamilton's object. - President Jack'son's views. - The South against the North. - Private stockholders preferred to the United States. - A gratuity to them. - What President Jackson said of the au­thors of the act. - Respect for that Congress diminished by the facts. - Maclay's disgust. - About 22 per cent per annum cleared by the traders. - Money of the South carried North. - Ties of the Union weakened.


Revolutionary pensioners. - Another story of injustice. - The South's contribution in the struggle for independence, and the criminal discrimination against her in the granting of pen­sions.  -  How the injustice became greater as the North's majority in the Congress grew. - In 1820 the disbursements were in the North $5.65 for every one of her Revolutionary soldiers. and in the South $1.69 for every one of her soldiers. -  Washington's salary. - Pension frauds.


Disposal of the public lands. - The ager publicus. - How the United States acquired the public lands. - Maryland's refusal to join the other States in the Con federation . - The pledge made to the States by the Congress. - Virginia's action. - The con­dition imposed in her deed - Cessions by other States. Union completed. - condition imposed by North Carolina and Georgia. - Kentucky and Vermont. - Unconstitutional expansion. - The cost of all the public lands and their management. - Disposition of them in disregard of the rights of the people and of the restrictions on the powers of Congress. - Jefferson and Madison on the Constitutional question. - Ignorance, ambition. and party spirit. - New States provided for, temporary govern­ments erected, officers appointed, and conditions of their ad­mission prescribed, "without the least color of Constitutional authority." - Compacts with inchoate States whereby lands were granted to them in consideration of their relinquishing certain powers.  - Mr. Gallatin's advice to Mr. Giles. - The com­pact with Ohio the precedent until the reasons for the grants were forgotten. - Gratuitous donations to Indiana in 1816.  - The precedent and the excuse for subsequent educational donations in new States, while in the old States education has been sup­ported by public taxes. - Two qualifications of this assertion. - The Acts of Congress. - The act admitting Indiana. - This a fair sample up to 1848. - Nearly twelve and a half millions of acres granted to 18 new States and Territories for internal improvements, almost half of the amount to 5 States in the Northwest. - Inducements to settle in Oregon, New Mexico, Kansas, Nebraska and Utah. - Nearly four millions acres granted after­wards to the favorite 5 States for canals. - 80,000,000 acres swamp lands to public land States. - Nearly twenty-three and a half millions acres granted to public land States for railroads. - The share of Illinois. - Territories governed from Washington city, and expenses of government paid by the people of all the. States.- Effect of this paternalism on the dwellers in the Ter­ritories. - Since 1861 revelry in evtravagance. - The act of 1864 authorizing less than 29,000 people in Nebraska to form a State Constitution. - It granted them, per capita, 98 acres of land and $117 in money. - 700,000 acres donated in 1865 to 5 States in the Northwest for canals. - Nearly two hundred millions acres granted between 1861 and 1871 for railroads and wagon roads in the Northwest. - 1,0000,000 acres of arid land granted to each of the arid-land States. - Irrigation. - Pacific Railroads. - Seminaries, town sites, penitentiaries, universities, normal schools, asylums, public buildings, reform schools, scientific schools. etc , etc. - Free homesteads to Northerners. foreigners, and negroes. - Every pledge made to the States violated. - Treasury receipts from sales about four-sevenths of the cost of the lands. A triple crime. - The purpose of the criminals. - Senator Plumb's speech . - The prospect

NOTE I. - Personal ambition a factor in land legislation     143

NOTE K. - The bane of party spirit     143

NOTE L. - The bargain in the ordinance for the government of the
    Northwest territory    144

NOTE M. - Government of Territories unauthorized     146


War of 1812. - Conduct of New England. - The war debt. - New England gathered into her coffers everything due her, and re­fused to loan to the administration. - No power to emit paper money. - What Jefferson said. - Indifferent success of efforts to borrow money.  - Distress of the Treasury. - Proposals invited. - Loans effected at a discount of nearly 14 per cent.  - Some of the bond purchasers. - A wealthy slave-trader of Rhode Island. - Depreciated State bank bills accepted. - New England responsi­ble for the large unearned gains of the investors. - The Hart­ford Convention and its effect. - What Carey says about their conduct. - Ex-President John Adams.  - The ravings of the' New England demagogues. - The olive branch brought forward by the South.  - Where the money of the Union had been congested

NOTE N. - Conciliatory acts of the South


Indirect taxation. - What Jean-Baptiste Say said. - Of several methods of collecting taxes Congress selected the tariff. - Why? - The Whiskey Insurrection. - The tax could be wrapped up in the merchant's retail price.  - If prices were high, the peo­ple would not know who was responsible. - High prices induce people in the United States to engage in manufacturing. - The most advantageous situation for factories in New England. - The effect of non-importation acts and the war of 1812. - The "distress" of the manufacturers after the war. - Three years of protection adopted in 1816. - Manufacturers quartered on the agriculturists secured an extension of privileges. - In 1824 the birth of many "infants" provided for. - Act of 1828. - Struggle for sectional supremacy, beginning in 1820, now approaches a crisis. - The South defied in 1832. - Abolition fanatics. - Union of protected interest and fanatics to exclude the South from the common territory, and thereby strengthen the North. - Speech of Thomas B. Reed. - The South's share of exports. - The South paid, per capita, more than six times as much as the North to support the government. - Giving the North the benefit of every doubt, it was more than twice as much. - The disburse­ment of these taxes. - Manufacturers enabled under this system to add nearly $25 to every $100 worth of their products. - Their advocates must explain how they realized 43 per cent under what they called the "free trade tariff" of 1846. - What Mr. Benton said in 1828.  - What was said by the Representatives of South Carolina in 1832. - The compromise tariff. - Even this in­sured the manufacturer $1.20 for every $1.00 worth of his products. - The pledge of the protectionists broken in 1842. - President Tyler's vetoes. - Triumph of low tariff advocates. - Even under their tariffs the manufacturer could sell $1.00 worth of his wares for from $1.15 to $1.24. - The plundering of the South for the enrichment of the North. - Shoddy. - Justification of tariff robbery. - Britain would dictate prices. - The "home market" fiction to gull the farmer. - When competition became sharp, prices. would fall to "pauper labor " level. - The oppon­ent of protection cruelly disregardful of "the mourning of labor". - "The foreigner pays the tax ''. - The Southerner who desires to buy his supplies in the market where he sells most of his cotton should be punished for his lack of patriotism. - The effect of protection on the fertility of foreign wheat fields. - Produce everything at home, and be independeht. - The slave-holder who paid no "wages" was morally bound to share his
profits with the Northern manufacturer who paid wages.

NOTE O. - Some of the iniquities of the McKinley tariff.

NOTE P. - The rates of the act of 1816 opposed by the South._ _ _ _ 175

NOTE Q. - Calhoun's casting vote in 1827.     175

NOTE R. - Manufacturers dictated rates in 1828.      176

NOTE S. - "Certainty of prices" insured to manufacturers at the expense of other classes.


Personal phase of tariff question. - Jackson vs. Calhoun. - Jackson and Webster vs. Calhoun and Hayne. - Opposition to high tariff rates developed when taxes laid for protection. - The "American system". - Andrew Jackson supported it. - But the contest over it was mainly between the North, on one side, and the South, on the other. - The legislature of Georgia condemned protection. - Schemes for "internal improvements" denounced by South Carolina. - A committee of Bostonians protested against the doctrine that we should buy dear domestic goods instead of cheap foreign goods. - Hope deferred. - In 1828 - another Presidential-election year - protection more firmly fasten­ed on the country. - Helplessness of the South. - No Constitu­tional remedy against acts Constitutional in form however gross­ly unconstitutional in spirit. - Mr. Drayton's effort to have the act declare its real purpose. - Action of North Carolina, Alabama, and Virginia. - Jackson's inaugural address of March 4th, 1829, recommended a readjustment of rates. - Recommended also in his annual message of December 8. - Nothing done in that session of Congress. - A new question in January, 1830. - Nullification and secession. - Hayne and Webster. - Webster's argument. - What Madison said about the "general welfare" clause. - Webster vs. Webster. - A personal controversy. - The cunning hand of Martin Van Buren. - What Webster said of Calhoun. - Jackson's argument. - Answered by Jackson in his farewell address. - The "Kitchen Cabinet". - In December 1831, the Presi­dent recommended a reduction of tariff rates. - The existing law yielded $27,000,000 while the treasury needed only $15,000,000. - Internal improvement schemes introduced by protection­ists to avoid a reduction of rates. - Jackson's inconsistency - How surpluses are disposed of in later years. - A more objectionable tariff act passed, and approved by Jackson.  - An address to their constituents by the South Carolina representatives. - The Northern States "gained more than they lost by the operations of the revenue system". - Nullification proceedings in South Carolina. - Georgia's successful resistance to the execution of a treaty. - The seventh act of resistance to the Federal government. - John Hancock, Governor of Massachusetts, set the ex­ample by defying the Federal judiciary. - No moneyed interest affected by previous nullifications. - The President's proclamation. - Remarkable doctrines. - The soundness of his reasoning. - Answered himself through the Washington Globe. - Calhoun vindicated by Jackson. - The power to "call forth the force of the Union against any member of the Union" delib­erately excluded from the plan of the Union. - The whole sub­ject before Congress. - The legislatures of many States express their opinions. - Congress determined to preserve the public peace by a compromise. - What Mr. Calhoun said. - The terms of the compromise. - Peace preserved, but the Constitution
fatally wounded


Sugar and rum drawbacks. - Frauds on the treasury. - " The wise men of the East ". - Cheap whiskey transformed into rum. - Drawback on exported rum greater than revenue derived from imported molasses. - The lion's share to Massachusetts.


How Northern school books deal with slavery. - A sample. - Inexcusable ignorance or deliberate misrepresentation. - The right of one man to own another not questioned at the time of the first settlements. - The negro and the Indian were not "men" - Battle on Mystic river. - Cheating the West Indian. - Fugitive slave laws in New England.  - Massasoit's grandson. - Two distin­guished preachers. - Massachusetts engaged in the slave trade. - Number of slaves in Massachusetts. - Bought and sold as other property. - One sold at auction as late as 1793. - Law against manumission. - Not to be abroad after 9 o'clock. - A new breed of negroes. - Weaned children given away like pup­pies.  - New England's moral code. - Emanuel Downing. - Sumner's ignorance. - The Fundamentals or Body of Liberties of Massachusetts. - Slavery never abolished in Massachusetts by law. - Her Bill of Rights, - Supreme Court. - Negro slaves less profitable than white servants. - Numbers in the Northern States. - George III and slavery. - Sumner and Massachussetts Supreme Court. - Virginia's Bill of Rights. - The ignorance of Von Hoist, and his "slavocracy". - "The Guinea trade" - Felt's Salem. - Massachusetts negroes sent to warmer climates and sold. - "Social equality". - The hypocritical howl. - Free negroes excluded from Northern States.  - Could be whipped in Massachusetts. - Economic reasons for decay of slavery in Northern States. - Suppression of African slave trade. - Massa-chusetts not foremost. - Roger Sherman. - African slave trade kept up by New England shippers till 1862. - What Mr. Lowndes said. - Ineffectual efforts of Federal authorities to suppress slave trade. - Messages of Presidents. - Slave trade made piracy in 1820. - 961 negroes on board the Boston slaver Nightingale in 1861, and "expecting more". - Naval War Records. - The results of the importations shown by per centage of increase. - American Colonization Society a Southern institution.   

NOTE T. - Debate between Senators Sumner and Butler. - Seward's admission


Many of New England's "great moral ideas" mere fictions. - The truth of history demands exposure of false pretensions. - Why abolition sentiment was checked in the Southern States. - Experience. - Discrimination against free negroes in all the States. - Indiana's Constitution. - Many set free during and after the Revolution. - In North Carolina free negroes voted till 1836. - Public charge. - Experience in Northern States. - "Miserable remnant of former well-fed slaves ". - "A nuisance ". - Ohio's exclusion. - Greater kindness and indulgence of the Southerner recognized in Uncle Tom's Cabin. - Chattel slavery no more offensive to Northern than to Southern sensibilities. - The vote to prohibit African slave trade. - Petition from Indiana Terri­tory. - Prohibition of slavery in Northwest Territory sup­ported unanimously by the South. - Reports of John Randolph and Jesse Franklin. - No sectional differences. - "Extension of slavery " defined. - Many abolitionists in all the States in early days. - Increase of free blacks in the South. - Abolition senti­ment in the South checked by the new issue of sectional con­trol of the Government. - False pretences of Northern free-soilers. - Their real object acknowledged in Montgomery's American History. - Missouri Compromise. - Free-soilers not abolitionsts. - The abolitionists a discredited faction. - Garrison, Tappan, and Lovejoy. - Wendell Phillips. - Attorney-General James T. Austin. - The abolitionists avowed disunionists. - Higginson, the patriot. - Hon. Joseph H. Walker makes a reve­lation. - What the free-soilers said as late as 1860. - Abolition societies and their methods. - Jackson's message. - Servile insurrections. - Sincere abolitionists in the South silenced. - ­William Gaston. - Abolitionists fuse with free-soilers. - Beecher's advice. - The "campaign liar". - Jefferson thrust in­to the "pro-slavery party" - The uninformed told that the strug­gle for sectional control was a struggle between "liberty and slavery". - Mrs. Stowe's sneer at the Constitution. - "Great moral ideas" displaced the Constitution. - The slave-holder a monster. - Slave-holders paid no "wages". - The New York World on wages paid in the North. - Tenement houses. - The Journal of the Knights of Labor on "American wages". - The tramp.

NOTE U. - The effect of the abolition agitation in Virginia.

NOTE V. - The tramp


The "slave-power" fiction the crowing falsehood of the South's traducers. - The slave-trade compromise. - The "three-fifths " compromise. - History of it. - Basis of taxation and representation. - Greeley's fierce assault on his man of straw. - Butler's little Bill of Extras. - Webster on fugitives from service. - Greeley's ignorance. - The purchase of Louisiana, and the motive. - "Slavery never let the North alone". - Florida compared to Nebraska. - The annexation of Texas. - History. - "Bad faith" of the "slave power" in regard to the so-called Missouri compromise. - No power delegated to Congress to meddle with slavery in the territory belonging to the United States. - The treaty with France forbade such meddling in the Louisiana purchase. - History of the so-called compromise. - The "North" the first to disregard it. - All the falsehoods supporting the "slave-power" fiction, treated with indignant silence by the South, accepted as history in the North. - But there was one charge the enemies of the South never made. - Her hands are clean.

NOTE W. - First movement to disrupt the Union made by Massachusetts

Is there exaggeration in the preceding chapters? - Benton's tes­timony. - Often voted for what his judgement condemned. - Federal measures to tax the South for the benefit of the North. - A convention of Southern States. - Its address to the, people. - Unconstitutional working of the Federal government. - Rem­edy proposed  - It was tried, but failed. - Why? - Benton's reminiscences. - The Union should be preserved. - Worth more to the North than to the South.

Causes of the war between th States. - The firm league of friendship broken. - Madison's delicate truth. - Enumeration of violations. - Lincoln justified secession. - Mutual obligations of the States trampled on. - John Brown. - Webster's appeal to the Northern people to "permit" the Southern States to "remain" in the Union. - Slow, stealthy, and misunderstood result of legislation hostile to the South. - Pervasive impression. - Social order endangered - "Fire eaters". - Recollection of bitterness of nullification period. - The last feather on the camel's back. - Lincoln's admission. - South Carolina seceded. - Her reasons. - Sent commissioners to Buchanan. - What he had said in his message. - Other grounds of confidence. - Hamilton's admission of the right of a State to secede. - Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. - Timothy Pickering. - Tucker's Blackstone. - Josiah Quincy. - Hartford Convention. - Judge Rawle. - J. Q. Adams. - Supreme Court. - President W. H. Harrison on "our Confederacy." - Massachusetts when Texas was annexed. - Webster at Capon Springs. - B. F. Wade. - Lippincott's Gazetteer. - Horace Greeley. - Buchanan lacked the courage of his convictions. - Crittenden proposition. - Peace Congress. - The worth of the Union. without "a little blood-letting". - A Southern Unionist turned secessionist. - Other Southern States seceded. - Confed­erate States of America. - They sent commissioners to Washington. - Friendly relations sought. - Provisional government - Permanent Constitution. - This Constitution basely misrepre­sented to the ignorant and the prejudiced. - Mr.Lincoln inaugu­rated five days before this Constitution adopted. - His inaugural address. - Property "belonging ta the government ". - Refused to assemble the Congress. - A declaration of war. - The title of "the Government" to the forts, etc. in Charleston Harbor - No money ever paid to the State for her Revolutionary forts. - No legal right of ownership even in the United States before secession. - They were held by the sufferance of the owner. - Mr. Lincoln's determination to drive out the owner the casus belli. - Waged war against the Confederate States. - His Con­gress refused to sanction his usurpations. - Wilson's resolution, and the action of his party friends. - Lyman Trumbull's respect for his oath. - The language and the contents of the resolution. - Pryor's resolution, and the course of Messrs. Logan, McClernand, and Sickles. - Logan's speech denouncing the Northern fanatics. - Northern newspapers criticised Lincoln's position, and justified secession. - Gen. Joseph Lane exposed the decep­tions of the revolutionists. - Soon all cool reason was silenced.  - Mendacious fanatics rushed to the front as leaders of the peo­ple. - Logan, McClernand, and Sickles in the ranks of the usurpers. - Greeley followed them. - The "lower depth" to which Mr. Lincoln sunk in his Gettyburg address. - Patriotism and hatred of the South undistinguishable. - Death and destruction. - Reports of General Sherman and Kilpatrick of their vandalism and pillage in Georgia. - A district larger than Ver­mont laid waste. - $100,000,000 of property destroyed or carried North. - Thanks of Grant and Lincoln . - Public sentiment in the North in 1898. - Crimes committed by the black and white fiends who disgraced the Federal uniform. - The cost of the war. - The South compelled to pay a part of the cost of its own subjugation. - How much the Southern people had paid up to 1894. - Eleven times as grievious as the burden laid on France by Germany. - The cost of what the victorious usurpers inflicted on the South as what they called "legitimate results" of the war incalculable. - The cost of the bonds. - The clear loss in the sale of them. - The South's burden growing instead of diminishing. - Objectionable Federal officers appointed in the South. - The Union of the Constitution destroyed. - The Southern States conquered provinces. - Reconstruction and destruction. - All this was to preserve and perpetuate "our free institutions."

NOTE X. - Northern approval of John Brown's crimes. - Governor Andrew and " a young merchant of Boston."

NOTE Y. - The language of imperialism. - " The Government " instead of " The United States."

NOTE Z. - The victims of subjugation. - The patience and fidelity
of the Confederate soldier

NOTE AA. - Military despotism. and "reconstruction outrages" - Extracts from military orders.


The preservation of slavery not among the objects of secession. - Charles Bancroft's admission. - What was said by the platform on which Lincoln was elected. - His inaugural address. - He re­voked Freemont's abolition proclamation. - Gen. J. H. Lane's letter. - Dilworth's report. - Lincoln revoked Hunter's order. - Lincoln compelled to yield to the demands of the fanatics. - Governor Andrew's letter. - Lincoln proposed to liberate the slaves of "rebels" only. - Subjugated States and parts of States excepted. - Remarkable doctrines of his proclamation. - Joseph Holt on liberating slaves. - Dealing with the race question since the war. - To punish and degrade the Southern whites the only object. - In 1867 ballots placed in the hands of the negroes of the South, but not of the District of Columbia. - The jewel of con­sistency forced the radicals to enfranchise whites and negroes in that District in 1871. - State and United States offices denied to the negro in the North. - What President Johnson said of the usurpers. - Testimony of Judge Ewart, a Southern man with Northern principles. - How the negro fares in New England. - "Free citizens" of Alabama denied the privilege of laboring in Illinois. - Testimony of Zion's Herald. - Apology of Providence Journal. - Falsehoods about compensation to slave-holders.

NOTE AB. - The fiction about compensating slave-holders.

NOTE AC. - Election laws. - Extract from a speech of the author.

The Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the Constitution

Comments. (Please avoid grandstanding.):


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