• Table of Contents


    Take, since you bade it should bear,
    These, of the seed of your sowing—
    Blossom or berry or weed.

    Sweet though they be not, or fair,
    That the dew of your word kept growing;
    Sweet at least was the seed.

    -- Swinburne to Mazzini

    August Lewis of New York
    Tom L. Johnson of Cleveland, Ohio,
    who, of their own motion, and without suggestion or thought of mine, have helped me to the leisure needed to write it, I affectionately dedicate what in this sense is their work.

    Introductory Epigraphs

    But let none expect any great promotion of the sciences, especially in their effective part, unless natural philosophy be drawn out to particular sciences; and again unless these particular sciences be brought back again to natural philosophy. From this defect it is that astronomy, optics, music, many mechanical arts, and what seems stranger, even moral and civil philosophy and logic, rise but little above their foundations, and only skim over the varieties and surface of things, viz., because after these particular sciences are formed and divided off they are no longer nourished by natural philosophy, which might give them strength and increase; and therefore no wonder if the sciences thrive not when separated from their roots.

    -- Bacon, Novum Organum


       For tho’ the Giant Ages heave the hill
      And break the shore, and evermore
      Make and break, and work their will;
      Tho’ world on world in myriad myriads roll
      Round us, each with different power
      And other forms of life than ours,
      What know we greater than the soul?


    Saving Communities
    Bringing prosperity through freedom, equality, local autonomy and respect for the commons.

    Henry George
    The Science of Political Economy

    Table of Contents

    Original vs. Abridged Editions
    Preface to the 1981 Schalkenbach Edition
    Prefatory Note to the Original Edition / 1898
    Preface from the Original Manuscript / 1894
    General Introduction

    Book I: The Meaning of Political Economy

    Chapter I: The Three Factors of the World
    Chapter II: Man, His Place and Powers
    Chapter III: How Man’s Powers Are Extended
    Chapter IV: Civilization -- What it Means
    Chapter V: The Origin and Genesis of Civilization
    Chapter VI: Of Knowledge and the Growth of Knowledge
    Chapter VII: Of Sequence, Consequence and Laws of Nature
    Chapter VIII: Of the Knowledge Properly Called Science
    Chapter IX: The Economy Called Political Economy
    Chapter X: The Elements of Political Economy
    Chapter XI: Of Desires and Satisfactions
    Chapter XII: The Fundamental Law of Political Economy
    Chapter XIII: Methods of Political Economy
    Chapter XIV: Political Economy as Science and as Art

    Book II: The Nature of Wealth

    Chapter I: Confusions as to the Meaning of Wealth
    Chapter II: Causes of Confusion as to the Meaning of Wealth
    Chapter III: What Adam Smith Meant by Wealth
    Chapter IV: The French Physiocrats
    Chapter V: Adam Smith and the Physiocrats
    Chapter VI: Smith’s Influence on Political Economy
    Chapter VII: Ineffectual Gropings toward a Determination of Wealth
    Chapter VIII: Breakdown of Scholastic Political Economy
    Chapter IX: Wealth and Value
    Chapter X: Value in Use and Value in Exchange
    Chapter XI: Economic Value -- Its Real Meaning and Final Measure
    Chapter XII: Value in Exchange Really Related to Labor
    Chapter XIII: The Denominator of Value
    Chapter XIV: The Two Sources of Value
    Chapter XV: The Meaning of Wealth in Political Economy
    Chapter XVI: The Genesis of Wealth
    Chapter XVII: The Wealth That Is Called Capital
    Chapter XVIII: Why Political Economy Considers Only Wealth
    Chapter XIX: Moral Confusions as to Wealth
    Chapter XX: Of the Permanence of Wealth
    Chapter XXI: The Relation of Money to Wealth

    Book III: The Production of Wealth

    Chapter I: The Meaning of Production
    Chapter II: The Three Modes of Production
    Chapter III: Population and Subsistence
    Chapter IV: The Alleged Law of Diminishing Returns in Agriculture
    Chapter V: Of Space and Time
    Chapter VI: Confusion of the Spacial Law with Agriculture
    Chapter VII: The Relation of Space in Production
    Chapter VIII: The Relation of Time in Production
    Chapter IX: Cooperation -- Its Two Ways
    Chapter X: Cooperation -- Its Two Kinds
    Chapter XI: The Office of Exchange in Production
    Chapter XII: Office of Competition in Production
    Chapter XIII: Of Demand and Supply in Production (blank)
    Chapter XIV: Order of the Three Factors of Production
    Chapter XV: The First Factor of Production -- Land
    Chapter XVI: The Second Factor of Production -- Labor
    Chapter XVII: The Third Factor of Production -- Capital

    Book IV: The Distribution of Wealth

    Chapter I: The Meaning of Distribution
    Chapter II: The Nature of Distribution
    Chapter III: The Common Perception of Natural Law in Distribution
    Chapter IV: The Real Difference Between Laws of Production and of Distribution
    Chapter V: Of Property
    Chapter VI: Cause of Confusion as to Property

    Book V: Money -- The Medium of Exchange and Measure of Value

    Chapter I: Confusions as to Money
    Chapter II: The Common Understanding of Money
    Chapter III: Medium of Exchange and Measure of Value
    Chapter IV: The Office of Credit in Exchanges
    Chapter V: The Genesis of Money
    Chapter VI: The Two Kinds of Money
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